Punjab Geographer

Annual Journal volume 4

October 2008


APG Journal Volume 4

Editor: Dr. H.S. Mangat
Mananging Editor: K. Surjit Singh


Smita Bhutani: The Indian Monsoon: Recent Investigations.

Various issues relating to the Indian monsoon have been a subject of intensive scientific investigation ever since the last quarter of the 17th century when the English scientist Edmund Halley postulated that the Indian monsoon was the outcome of the differential heating of land and oceanic areas, resulting in convectional uplift of moist air. This basic concept of the convectional system resulting from differential heating is, with some modifications, still accepted. However, scientists have made an extensive study of various aspects of the monsoon and its relationship with other weather phenomena.

Abha Lakshmi Singh, Mansoor Alam Siddiqui: Effect of city expansion on the countryside: A case study.

The study investigates the expansion of Aligarh city during the last fifty years (1951 to 2001) and its effect on the countryside. Four particular kind of effects on the countryside deserves special attention i.e. loss of cultivated land, loss of biomass, land degradation, and changes in landuse and occupational pattern. This paper focuses on the loss of cultivated land and agricultural land put to non agricultural uses. The results show that during the last 50 year the city population has increased 5 times and area has increased 6 times, absorbing 72 villages and consuming 71.3 per cent of good fertile cultivated lands. Further it was also abserved that most of the cultivated lands are utilized for residential purposes with lack of infrastructural facilities like water, sanitation, electricity, roads etc.

Dr.B.R. Thakur, Praveen Kumar Thakur, V. Hari Prasad, S. P. Agarwal: Relief Analysis of Solani Watershead Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techonology.

The present study is aimed at analyzing the relief characteristics of Solani watershed using ASTER image (Dec. 2003) and Survey of India toposheets with combination of geospatial techniques. In the present study, an endeavor has been made to study quantitatively the relief characteristics of Solani watershed in terms of absolute relief, relative relief, dissection index, hypsometry and landscape profiles. These attributes of relief have been analysed while dividing the digital elevation model (DEM) of 30m spatial resolution and grids of 2 km2. The spatial variations in absolute relief, relative relief and dissection index have been shown with the help of maps. The hypsometric curves have been computed and prepared based on sliced DEM at an interval of 50m height above mean sea level. The study reveals that more than two-third of the watershed comes under the category of < 500m height. The areas of high relative relief coincide with areas of high absolute relief. The plains and valley flats support low dissection index, while gorges, scarps and steeply sloping divides and highs and crests of divides support moderate dissection index in Solani watershed. The study indicates that as the elevation increases beyond 850m, the areal coverage decreases in the watershed. The hypsometric integral computed for Solani watershed is as high as 82.50 per cent which indicates its youth or inequilibrium stage. The superimposed and composite profiles portray both the sharpness of relief features in the northern part and flatness of valley bottoms in the southern part of watershed. The slope analysis reveals that about 16.10 per cent of study area has nearly level slope. The area lying in very steep slope category accounts for about 12.60 per cent of total watershed.

Nandkumar Sawant: Goa: Demographic Transition And Population Agieing - An Insight For Future Demographic Planning.

Demographic transition is an analysis of the principle of population – a transition from a biological state of fertility to an economic or socio-cultural state of fertility whereby is becomes a function of changing socio-economic development. This results in modernization of society in term of increasing literacy , increasing life expectancy, higher income levels and population ageing. Thus, The process of Population Ageing is primarily determined by fertility (birth) rates and secondly by mortality (death) rates. Today, ageing has become an universal phenomenon but the rate of increase of aged population is higher for Less Developed Countries than Developed economies. Therefore, this is a growing concern and emerging field of research.
Goa, one of the smallest State of Indian Union, in the recent decades has witnessed rapid socio - economic changes resulting in positive demographic dynamics. Apart from curbing population growth, low fertility and increase in literacy, it has also experienced increase in aged population. Thus, the sole objective of the paper is to analyze the demographic transition for Goa and its increasing proportion of ageing population. The data of crude birth rate and crude death rate for Goa has been collected for various decades and then the demographic transition has been plotted. Further, a relationship has been established with ageing population and factors influencing the process.
Goa with low fertility and decreasing mortality has reached the III rd stage of demographic transition and the proportion of aged is on the rise. Presently, nearly 8.5 per cent of the population is aged population and is increasing at an average of 35 per cent per decade. The high life expectancy, literacy and low mortality rates are the main drivers of increasing the population in aged group. To conclude, the trend of population ageing is increasing and this draws attention towards better socio-economic planning.

Narinder Kumar, Dhian Kaur: Rural Non-Farm Workforce in Haryana, 2001: A Geographical Analysis.

In recent years a steady expansion of rural non-farm activities, practically, in all parts of rural India is a significant trend. The percentage of rural non-farm employment in the country has been constantly increasing with 15.2 per cent in 1971, 15.8 per cent in 1981, 19.76 per cent in 1991 and 29.37 per cent in 2001. It shows that rural workforce is gradually shifting out of agriculture at national level. The rural national economy therefore is moving towards diversification. Similarly the state of Haryana had 22.44 per cent workers engaged in rural non-farm employment in 1971 which grew to 24.52 per cent in 1981. This percentage further increased to 27.06 in 1991and 39.23 in 2001 census respectively. This increase is mainly due to shift of workforce from agricultural to non-agricultural activities and partly due to new workers adopting non-farm occupations. However, these two components are generally treated together. The increase in non-farm employment in rural Haryana is the result of a combined role played by many growth led factors like commercialization of agriculture, development of infrastructure, industrialisation, urbanisation, literacy, transport development and distress factors such as unemployment. Based on tehsilwise Census data, the present paper is an attempt to study the rural non-farm workers in the state to understand the regional patterns of diversification and nature of rural economy.

Rajeshwari: Sanitation Related Diseases in Haryana: A Geographical Analysis.

There is a direct relationship between availability of water, sanitation, nutrition and human well-being. In this context, the present paper draws attention to the sanitation situation in Haryana and its relationship with hygiene associated diseases. Haryana has been taken as a case study because in terms of per capita income and provision of physical infrastructure, it is one of the developed states of India. The paper seeks to study whether the wealth gets transformed in human well-being in terms of eradication of parasitic and infectious diseases, as these are invariably related to water, sanitation and hygiene. Hence, present study focuses on two issues. Firstly, it analyses district-wise sanitation pattern in the state and secondly, it tries to relate disease pattern with prevailing sanitation conditions. The paper is based on secondary sources of data. Interventions that are needed to meet these challenges are also suggested.

Gurinder Kaur: Trends of Urban-Rural Male Migration in Punjab: 1971-2001.

In the present study the trends of the urban-rural male migration which emerged during the period 1971-2001 in Punjab have been analysed. This flow of migration as compared to other three flows of migration has not been studied extensively by the geographers both in the state as well as in India. The state has been experiencing an overall decline in the proportion of the urban-rural male migrant since 1971. The district-wise analysis for the period 1971-1991 has revealed combined trends in the state. Some districts experienced increase in the proportion of these migrants, while in other this proportion has declined gradually. However, in 2001 a majority of the districts have experienced a decline in the proportion of these migrants.

Gurbakhsh Singh, Sandeep Kaur: Intensity of Irrigation in Jammu Province.

The main objective of this paper is to assess the temporal and spatial variations in the intensity of irrigation in Jammu region from 1990-91 to 2000-2001. It is an established fact that the intensity of irrigation cannot be uniform in any agricultural region. This fact assumes more significance in the region where there are great variations not only in physiographic and drainage patterns but also in climatic and agro-climatic conditions. Kuhl, canal and tubewells are the main sources of irrigation in the region. In 1990-91 , Jammu region has the highest intensity of irrigation (19.13 per cent) which was the lowest in 1995-96 (17.08 per cent) but in 2000-2001it could marginally improve to 18.22 per cent. After calculating the intensity of irrigation the study area has been divided into the regions of intensity of irrigation. Further, the study also attempts to analyze the changes that have occurd over space and in time.